Functional Terminology ⨐

☕️ 3 min read

Pure Functions

  • These return a value based on what is passed in to the function.
  • For instance, if we pass x into a function as input we will get F of x out as output.
  • Another property of a pure function is that it will always return the same result for the same passed in value.
  • If we pass input x into the function again, we should get back the exact same value, F of x. You should be able to do this an infinite amount of times and always get back the same output for a specific input. In addition, pure functions do not modify values outside of its scope. They are independent from any state in the system.
  • They never mutate data and they do not produce side effects. Generally, they can also easily be reused.

First-Class Functions

  • First of all, a programming language must support first-class functions to support the functional programming paradigm.
  • First-class functions can be stored as a variable, they can be passed as an argument, and also they can be returned as the result of a function call.
  • In addition, a first-class function can also be bound to a variable name, as well as stored in a data structure. Basically, you can generally do anything with a first-class function that you would be able to do with a variable or object.

Higher-order Functions

  • These are functions that can operate on other functions. They can take in a function as input, or even return one as output.
  • First-class functions are useless without higher-order functions to pass them into or return them from.

Anonymous Functions

  • The roots of anonymous functions lie heavily in lambda calculus.
  • An anonymous function allows us to define ad hoc logic as we need, without needing to declare a formal named function.
  • They are nameless and they can also serve as an argument to another function.
  • Also, they can be assigned to a variable. They are basically a nameless first-class function.
  • Anonymous functions can be passed into or returned from a higher-order function.


  • Closures are lexically scoped name binding in languages with first-class functions. Closures give us function portability. Closures are what allow us to pass around and store functions.
  • A closure is defined as a persistent local variable scope which holds on to local variables after the code execution has moved out of that block.
  • Captured variables can be accessed through the closure’s copies of variable values or references when the function is invoked outside of their scope. A closure, which is the scope of a function, is kept alive by a reference to that function. Variables which were in scope when that function was defined will still be in scope when we call it later in a different context.
  • A closure can also be thought of as a record storing a function together with a environment. One final way of defining a closure is as a mapping associating each variable of the function with the value or reference to which the name was bound when the closure was created. Next up, let’s go over functional composition.


  • Monad, Think of monad as a context object that wraps a value and allows us to apply a set of transformations on that value and get it back out with all the transformations applied.
  • Stream and Optional are Monads, when they are used as Stream.of() and Optional.of() as constructors and map() and flatMap() as binding functions.
  • collect() method is called fold in FP terms, which summarizes bunch of values into one.
Published 7 Dec 2018

Gopal S Akshintala

Gopal S Akshintala

So excited about this Craft that, I can't keep myself from blogging about it.

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